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; thus, it is of interest to trace mirror origins, development, and use.

Here, earliest known manufactured mirrors are discussed and their origins in different parts of the world are considered and compared.

The purpose of this study is to consider the ancient history and early development of mirrors, because mirrors played a key role in refraction and magnification for an extended period of time before the invention of spectacles, including broad use in Roman times.

(volcanic glass), had a convex surface and remarkably good optical quality.

Conolly suggests the first shaping/grinding of an Anatolian mirror surface was quite coarse; the surface was then polished with a fine-grained material such as silt and buffed with material such as leather. Colin Renfrew, Cambridge University, argued that, in approximately 6000 BC, Çatalhöyük (Fig.

From then onward, in Egypt, in city-states of Mesopotamia, and in the Levant, records of mirror use appeared within sculptures, raised and incised carvings, papyrus texts, and as mirrors (see Figs. (Items are aligned to allow comparisons of dates of findings).

Early mirrors were near flat (but not at Çatal Hüyük); later mirrors were convex, which created an upright image in a smaller mirror surface area, thus requiring less bronze.

1), which then had a population of 10,000, was the center for major developments in farming and language.

If he is correct, it follows that Çatalhöyük, and greater Anatolia, were likely associated with the spread of other critical civilizing components to other areas and peoples. Lilyquist notes that water evaporated very rapidly from their surfaces; she also noted that ceramic bowls designed to hold water were apparently used as mirrors and cites early findings at El Badari.

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